The Sky Above Turkey

23 Aug


[Prefatory Note: An earlier version was published by Middle East Eye on August 10, 2016. It seems so important at this time for the sake of the future of Turkey that the West look at the country and its political circumstances in a far more balanced way than how the situation has been portrayed since the coup. How to explain this imbalance is another matterthat should be explored at some point, but for now is largely put aside.]





Much uncertainty remains in Turkey, but there is enough evidence of positive tendencies to raise a tentative banner of hope. Being a witness to the political atmosphere in Turkey that has emerged after the failed coup of July 15th puts me at odds with the secular consensus in the West, which looks up at the sky and sees only dark, ominous clouds of human rights abuse and autocratic leadership. What I have experienced and observed so far is quite different, a sky with much blue in it.


There are two opposed, although overlapping, tendencies present that seemed to be responsive to the political priorities that top the post-coup government agenda: sustaining the anti-coup unity by shifting political gears within the AKP leadership circles in the direction of “inclusive democracy” and pragmatism, and with it, a retreat from the polarizing claims of “majoritarian democracy” that greatly intensified after the 2011 national elections and were particularly evident in the clumsy, unacceptable way the Turkish government handled the Gezi Park demonstrations two years later.

The most important concrete embodiment of this post-15 July move toward inclusiveness has been a series of initatives intended to create a common front between the three leading political parties in the country, including the CHP (secular mainstream) and MHP (nationalist rightest) opposition parties. This has been reinforced by several other developments, including a pragmatic approach to foreign policy and a decision by Recip Tayyip Erdoğan to drop the many law suits under a Turkish law that makes it a civil wrong to insult the president.


The Ataturk effect

 There is also a reinforcement of these developments with clear evidence of an AKP appreciation of Kemal Ataturk as heroic founder of the country and defender of its political independence and unity, which had been notably absent from the AKP political profile ever since it initially took power in 2002.


It was notable that Erdoğan at his dramatic press conference at the Istanbul Airport on the night of the attempted coup spoke below a giant portrait of Ataturk. This gesture was reinforced by the dominance of huge poster pictures of Erdoğan and Ataturk, and no one else, behind the speaker stage at the immense  August 7th Democracy Watch rally, and even more so by a long Ataturk quotation in the course of Erdoğan’s speech, the highlight of the event. This emphasis on Ataturk’s guidance has also been notable in the CHP effort to interpret the defeat of the coup as a great victory of Turkish democracy, as well as a historic moment of national unity and patriotic fervor. It needs to be understood that invoking the image and thought of Ataturk are ways of expressing two realities: most significantly, a reaffirmation of the secularist orientation of the Turkish state accompanied by recognition that Turkey was experiencing a supreme “patriotic moment” that took precedence over all the pre-coup political divisions that had created such toxic polarization prior to July 15th.


Learning from mistakes

 Also notable, and a return to an earlier style, has been the generally calm tone and restrained substance of Erdogan’s leadership. In the domestic pro-AKP media, there have been references back to Erdoğan’s then controversial advice to the Egyptian people to insist on a secular foundation for the governing process following the Tahrir uprising that overthrew Mubarak, a position at the time deeply resented by the Muslim Brotherhood as an intrusion on Egyptian internal politics and distrusted or ignored by the secular opposition to Erdoğan in Turkey and abroad.


Looking back, Egypt would almost certainly have benefitted greatly if it had followed Erdoğan’s advice, with the ĸimplication that Turkey’s present crisis was brought about by allowing the religiously oriented movement of Fetullah Gülen to penetrate so deeply into the sinews of government.


Of course, anti-AKP voices insist, with reason, that Erdoğan failed to adhere to his own guidelines, both by insinuating political Islam into the appointment and policy process of the Turkish state in recent years and also by striking an opportunistic bargain with Gülen forces that years earlier paved the way for this exercise of pernicious religious influence within the Turkish state. Perhaps it is possible to learn from this past while admitting past mistakes (as Erdoğan has done by his extraordinary apology to the nation for past collaboration with and trust in the Gülen movement).


‘As many friends as possible’

 Another facet of the present understanding of July 15th is the widespread agreement across the Turkish political spectrum that the US was involved to some degree in relation to the coup. To what degree is a matter of wildly divergent beliefs ranging from active complicity to passive and indirect support. There is even the opinion present in Turkey that the timing of the coup reflected US government nervousness about Ankara’s seeming turn toward Mosow, and at minimum, if the coup had succeeded, Washington it seems would have shed few tears (just as it did after the democratically elected government was overthrown by a coup in 2013).


What lends some credibility to such suspicions is that a major foreign policy reset was underway and in motion prior to the coup attempt. It was centered upon diplomatic initiatives seeking to restore positive diplomatic and economic relations with Russia and Israel, and possibly even with Syria, Iran, and Egypt. Prospects for normalisation with Egypt took a turn for the worse as a result of Cairo’s seeming sympathy with the coup attempt, including possible receptivity to an asylum request from Fettulah Gülen.


Yet what seems in many respects to be a second coming of Turkey’s pre-Arab Spring approach of “zero problems with neighbours” has been reformulated by the current prime minister, Binali Yıldırım, in a similar formula: “as many friends as possible, and as few enemies.”

This apparent move away from the sort of ideological foreign policy that Turkey has pursued since 2011 may not be pleasing to hardliners in the US and Europe, but it certainly makes sense from the perspective of Turkish national interests, given current national and regional realities.


Atmosphere of fear

 Having pointed to some positive responses by the Turkish government to the crisis following the coup attempt, let me mention a few disturbing negative features of the present atmosphere. Erdoğan mobilized mass street support on the night of the failed coup, an initiative that even most of his critics here in Turkey treat as a stroke of political genius that probably turned the tide of battle on the fateful evening of July 15th. Yet some fear that the nightly continuation of populist demonstration that continued for three weeks were leading the country back in the direction of majoritarian democracy and reawakened polarization, and something even worse, if the temporary consensus with the opposition starts to fray.


Also extremely worrisome are mass detentions, arrests, dismissals, and suspensions involving many thousands of people, many of whom are viewed as innocent of any incriminating involvement. There are also reliable reports of torture and abuse involving some of those being held, creating a widespread atmosphere of fear and intimidation, making some people even scared to voice their views.


Given the fresh memories of the coup attempt, its brutal violence, and the realistic worry that pro-coup elements remain strategically situated in the governing structures of society, great pressure to strengthen internal security exists and should be interpreted with a measure of sympathy, or at least understanding. There is some reason to be guardedly hopeful as many individuals have been cleared and released, and the leadership has repeatedly promised to proceed in accord with the rule of law, including making diligent efforts not to confuse Gülen conspirators with anti-AKP critics. 


Populist pressure


There is also reason to be concerned about Erdogan’s demagogic appeals that seem designed to mobilize populist pressures on Parliament to restore capital punishment for the intended purpose of prosecuting and punishing Fetullah Gülen. It should be better appreciated in Turkey that any attempted application of capital punishment to Gulen would be unacceptably retroactive, and a violation of the rule of law as universally understood.


Among other effects, such a prospect would give the United States a credible legal pretext to deny the pending extradition request, which in turn would create a storm of anti-American resentment in Turkey. It is helpful to do a thought experiment that captures the Turkish political mood. The overwhelming majority of Turks feel what Americans would have felt if after the 9/11 attacks a supposedly friendly government had given safe haven to Osama Bin Laden.


The most shortsighted aspect of the current approach is the evident decision by Erdoğan to stop short of including the pro-Kurdish political party, HDP or People’s Democratic Party, in the national unity approach, and the absence of any show of a willingness to renew a peace process with the Kurdish national movement, including representatives of the PKK. The government contends that this is not possible to do so long as the PKK engages in armed struggle, which proceeds on a daily basis.


Given ongoing concerns with the Islamic State (IS) group and spillovers from the Syrian war, the future of Turkey will seem far brighter if the Kurdish dimension can be constructively addressed.



Concluding Observation

 What remains after this look at present pros and cons is a core reality of uncertainty, yet I believe there is presently enough evidence of positive tendencies, to raise a tentative banner of hope about the Turkish future. Such a banner is also justified as a counter to the banner of despair and rage being waved so vigorously by anti- Erdoğan zealots around the world with much support given by mainstream media and not a few governments in the West who withheld support of the Turkish government in its hour of need and have been reluctant to accept the allegations that the coup was the work of the movement headed by Fetullah Gülen from his informal headquarters in Pennsylvania. It is hardly surprising that Ankara should be looking elsewhere for friends, and even contemplating turning its back on Europe, and conceivably even NATO. It could be that a major geopolitical realignment is underway, or maybe not. If it occurs it will be the most significant change in the geopolitical landscape since the collapse of the Soviet Union in the aftermath of

the Cold War.




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6 Responses to “The Sky Above Turkey”

  1. Schlüter August 24, 2016 at 3:17 am #

    As for the geo-political implications I´d like to refer to this my article:
    „Geo-Politics: The Core of Crisis and Chaos and the Nightmares of the US Power Elite“

  2. NO to second Israel in the region August 24, 2016 at 7:20 am #

    The Kurds are US/Israel’s terrorists where must be destroyed by Turkey and other regional states at once. The Kurds are spying for Israel for the past 60 years and are hated by everyone in the region. ISIS is constructed and trained by US/Israel to create chaos to steal land from the regional states to erect ‘kurdistan’. This plan is carried out by Zionist stooges, Killary, Obama and other US criminals for “greater Israel’ according to Odid Yinon strategy, a criminal Zionist. The US are using ISIS to help the kurds to steal more lands to erect a puppet state for the criminal Zionist jews, the second Israel. Everyone must be know about the terrorist activities of the traitor kurds. People of the region want Turkey works closely with other states to destroy the kurds, to give these traitors a lesson.

    First he west must give the stolen land of Palestine back and let Catalonia and Kashmir to be an independent states and then the west should fuck off from the region because no one can afford to let them to kill and partition more countries for the interest of the westerners, the dummies. We know what happened in Sudan, and we see south Sudan a war zone and Mossad agents pose as ‘businessman’ robbing that land and laugh at the dummies who helped US/Israel – save Darfur, project, part of Oded Yinon plan. Death to dummies.

    People of the world are sick and tired of criminal west and wish the US/Israel/Britain receive the same treatment that the axis of evil are doing in other countries to change the map of the region. The axis of evil should be bombed beyond recognition to send a strong message that YOU cannot continue your crimes against humanity for ever by invading and robbing, killing in other countries to help 1% cockroaches criminal elite.

  3. sudhan August 24, 2016 at 9:16 am #

    Dr Richard Falk looks at the present situation in Turkey under Erdogan from different angles, and he weighs in both positive and negative sides of the likely scenarios after the July 15 coup. Shifting political partners and allies is a common addiction of all power-hungry leaders. We who have the welfare of people of Turkey in our hearts would be glad that Erdogan does not fall in the trap of that myopic considerations and interests.

    How will Erdogan fare in the near future is difficult to predict. However, demagogues may be clever in mobilising support of ordinary people around themselves but not so clever when it comes to using that popular support for the common good that in case of Turkey still is to maintain a secularist democracy as Ataturk had envisioned and introduced. Any sneaking religious compromises go against the Kemalist legacy that had made a break with the medieval mindset of the Ottoman times.

    Despite all the overtures from the PKK leadership to find an acceptable solution to the demands of the Kurds, Erdogan did not do much. He continued dragging his feet and that has led to the renewed military confrontations with the Kurds. This is true that Erdogan can cause much damage to the Kurds militarily, but he will not be able to control the fallout of such ‘military solution’ to the problem. The Kurds are not going to disappear. That will create more violence and instability. The whole situation is fraught with great dangers for both sides.

    If he opens up too many fronts, how will he fight? He may wield only two swords in his two hands but he will need may hands to hold the swords to fight on many fronts! As a result only the ordinary people of this country will suffer.

  4. Laurie Knightly August 24, 2016 at 6:08 pm #

    In small discussion group here, considerable nostalgic talk of Turkey having been most secular and moderate Islamist country in that part of world. Mention of Erdogan’s arrest in 1999 for writing a poem designed to incite religious hatred. Many questions about human rights but also cognizant of the current volatility in the region. Arrests made for view points etc. Recent dropping of charges regarding criticism of president seen as a plus.

    Some reflections concerning Abdullah Ocalan and the Kurds. His more recent statements from where he is imprisoned were reported to be well received. Some speculation that Erdogan might have collaborated with Gulen at one time as a visible link to religion – then when the movement became a threat to leadership, he was exiled. What was his link to US about? Why is he being protected? What’s with the world movement under his guidance? All questions that will remain currently unanswered. Turkey renewed ties to Israel but appears to be loyal to Palestinians on legal and humanitarian involvement. Oil dependence mentioned.

    Also, the stories of US moving stored nuclear weapons from Turkey to Romania [which the latter denies]. No support in discussion for them being stored there under any circumstances. And are the US bases lucrative for Turkey? Mention of the US bases being criticized as a sort of a blight to social morality in the region – personal behavior of our troops. Not much support for Turkey to become member of the EU – too increasingly religious and unstable.

    Albeit one of our members visits Turkey regularly, and loves the place, the rest of us
    depend on reference and media. But very hopeful that it might become a model for a more modernized and peaceful Islamic nation.

    • Gene Schulman August 25, 2016 at 4:25 am #

      Surprised to hear that there are more than three people in Portland that could find Turkey on the map. That’s probably a higher percentage than among the rest of the population in the USA.

      Keep posting us, Laurie. Always interesting.

  5. Kata Fisher August 25, 2016 at 6:38 am #

    This is what I understand –

    Human Rights will fall in their place what constitutional sovereignties are fully implemented.

    Its way to much threat and unnecessarily some would love to add to:


    but they really do not understand what they are all about

    President Recip Tayyip Erdoğan obviously understands his role, and is sticking to it – while he may be not most beloved in the Turkey; it is still up to him to understand and curb imminent threats of war and flipping it over into sustainable governing, adding additional pillars to it.

    I believe his work schedule and work environment needs to change imminently, and periodically.

    In this point in time oppositions are in really no legitimate position to go about opposition – what they need to go about is sustainable governing, and add additional pillars to it. In reality they need to figure out their roles, and start to be sticking to it. Obviously, reforming is out of the question at this point in time because it is a way to risky to go about any of that right now.

    Only during peace and stability, they may go about reforming some sections of risk items – unless they are under imminent threats of war and they have to manage the crises.

    It will be good for Recip Tayyip Erdoğan to periodically have the athletic and academic environment with his folks because it just helps with braking off not needed rigidness that may come up in the ordinary political work setting that they all deal with.

    I would suggest that short athletic retreats (within Turkey) will be most rewarding in this time of crises for Turkey.

    In addition to that, chilling bleachers are enjoyable.

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